There can be found library for handling with with datasystems and even with SD cards. So there is no problem to make a datalogger from your arduino. Very robust library with support of most types of SD cards can be found basic arduino library package which you download with adruino IDE. Thanks to it's robustness it is a little more memory consuming, so you must take care about free memory when working with this library.
It is connected by SPI interface.
Pin distribution: For read/write functionality of SD card there is no need of many components. In ultimate case one need just an arduino and SD card (with SD card holder). But in this case there is the risk of card destruction or false reading and false writing. Some cards are made for 3,3V logic and using 5V instead can damage the card. Shifting 5V logic to 3,3V is possible by part called level shifter. For example CD4050.
There is a supplementary voltage source 3,3V on the board. It is because the 3,3V source on arduino board can supply very low current and we can get over it's capability in ultimate case with SD card usage.